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Table 4 Most Worrisome Consequence of OSD in Hawal river valley, Nigeria (n = 128)

From: Epidemiology and psycho-social aspects of onchocercal skin diseases in northeastern Nigeria

Effect No. (%) Responses
Social isolation (Hindrance to social interaction) 40(31.3)
Shame and low self esteem ('self-hatred') 29(22.7)
High cost of medication 20(15.6)
Skin blemishes 15(11.7)
Restlessness/Sleeplessness 11(8.6)
Marital problems 8(6.3)
Others (Pains, headache, fever) 5(3.9)